The vague, poorly written language of the ERA does not allow any distinction to be made between men and women – even when it makes sense to do so based on their biological differences.
As a result, the ERA will harm women AND their unborn children by overturning laws and programs that benefit them.
Harm to unborn children:
The ERA would be used to overturn all restrictions on abortion (including the partial birth abortion ban, 3rd-trimester abortion ban and parental notice of minors seeking an abortion).
The ERA would be used to mandate taxpayer funding of elective Medicaid abortions.
In both New Mexico and Connecticut, their state ERAs were used in the courts to overturn restrictions on abortions and mandate taxpayer funding of elective Medicaid abortions with the rationale that since abortion is unique to women, restricting abortions is a form of sex discrimination. ” (N.M. Right to Choose/NARAL v. Johnson, 975 P.2d 841, 1998; and Doe v. Maher, 515 A.2d 134 [Conn Super. Ct. 1986])
Harm to women
The ERA would overturn laws and practices that benefit women because they would be viewed as showing preferential treatment to women. The laws and practices that would be overturned include:
Workplace laws that provide special accommodations for pregnant women
State labor laws and guidelines which benefit women who do heavy, manual work
Government programs that support women as mothers such as the Women, Infants, and Children nutritional program (WIC)
Social Security benefits for stay-at-home mothers based on their spouse’s income. Justice Ginsberg claims that the current gender neutral benefit language is still a violation of the equality principle because it encourages women to stay out of the workforce, and as such she would overturn the benefit.
Exemption of women from the military draft and front-line combat. Currently, women who feel they are physically able can choose to enlist in the military. The ERA, however, would require that all women be drafted and placed on front-line combat in equal ratios to men.
Laws and presumptions that support women in the areas of alimony, child support, and requirements of husbands to pay for their dependent wives’ medical bills. The ERA will also wipe out state laws that exempt a wife from having to pay her husband’s debts even if he deserts her with children to support.
All other laws that provide preferential treatment for women
ERA would impact theprivacy and safety of women and girls by removing gender designations for bathrooms, locker rooms, jails and hospital rooms.
The ERA will not give women any more rights than they currently have. Women already have claim to equal rights through the 14th Amendment (section 1) as well as numerous other laws in virtually all areas of American life – employment (including equal pay), education, credit eligibility, housing, public accommodations, etc. The US Supreme Court has already applied the 14th Amendment to women’s issues (United States v. Virginia, 518 U.S. 515 (1996)).
ERA won’t erase the gender wage gap. Women are already guaranteed equal pay through the federal Equal Pay Act of 1963 and can seek remediation through the EEOC. The currently quoted wage gap between men and women is a misunderstood statistic in which the average wages of all full-time working men and women are compared in one lump sum of men to women across all occupations and education levels. This doesn’t allow for an equal pay comparison. When we compare the wages of men and women within the same career, in similar positions, at the same age, the wage gap narrows to 98 cents for women compared to a dollar for men. Even when we compare within career fields, key factors such as years worked, the level of education, and time flexibility of job, etc. are not factored into the comparison (see “An Analysis of the Reasons for the Disparity in Wages Between Men and Women” U.S. Dept. of Labor, 2009).
The ERA would also transfer large amounts of legislative power from the states to Congress creating a greater imbalance of power and placing sensitive issues under the less responsive federal government.
Section 2 of the ERA requires that Congress be given the power to enact the provisions of the ERA.As a result, states would lose their legislative abilities in regards to family law (marriage, divorce, alimony, custody, adoption, and property), sex crime laws, public and private schools, insurance, prison regulations and any other areas of law impacted by gender.
It’s clear that ERA sponsors intended for the ERA to overturn all restrictions on abortion.
Efforts to soften the extreme nature of the ERA via amendments were rejected by the supporters of the ERA when the ERA was being drafted in Congress. Courts will look to this legislative history for legislative intent as they interpret the ERA. The sample amendment below that was rejected shows that the supporters intended the applications of the ERA to be extreme and without any protection for women or their unborn children:
This amending language for the ERA was rejected by the supporters: “The provisions of this article shall not impair the validity, however, of any laws of the United States or any State which exempt women from compulsory military service, or from service in combat units of the Armed Forces; or extend protections or exemptions for wives, mothers, or widows; or impose upon fathers responsibility for the support of children; or secure privacy to men or women, or boys or girls; or make punishable as crimes rape, seduction, or other sexual offenses” (Cong. Rec., pp. S9538–S9540).
The following amendment was also proposed to make the ERA-abortion neutral, but it was repeatedly rejected by ERA supporters: “Nothing in this Article shall be construed to grant or secure any right relating to abortion or the funding thereof.” It’s clear they intended for the ERA to overturn all restrictions on abortion.
Everyone loves the party game/icebreaker “two truths and a lie.”
The Equal Rights Amendment has been in the news recently, and recently failed to pass in Virginia. Can you identify which of the following is NOT true about the Equal Rights Amendment?
A. Women’s natural rights and basic legal equality are already protected in the U.S.
B. The ERA will not protect women against the predatory men being exposed by #MeToo or ensure that they are paid equally for the same work.
C. The ERA needs just one more state to ratify before it is added as the 28th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
Let’s take these statements one at a time:
The Constitution protects women’s rights to free speech, religious liberty, jury trial, and many other crucial rights. The 19th Amendment ensured that all women of age would have the right to vote and the Equal Protection Clause in the 14th Amendment protects women from being treated differently under the law solely on the basis of sex. Discrimination against women based on sex is also barred by the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and by other federal and state laws.
However, the Constitution as currently interpreted does allow for some common sense distinctions. For example, only men are required to sign up for draft, and government facilities such as public school restrooms and prisons are still allowed to be single-sex. These “discriminations” could be jeopardized by some readings of the ERA, which leaves extraordinarily broad language for judges to interpret instead of leaving these thorny social issues to the voters (the majority of whom are women).
Proponents of the ERA say that it only enshrines the basic legal equality that well over 90 percent of both women and men say they support, and at the same time, that it will solve the societal problems exposed by #MeToo and erase the so-called pay gap between men and women. But the ERA will not affect criminal laws against harassment and assault, which are already in place in all 50 states. Similarly, sex discrimination in the workplace is already barred by federal law since 1963. Furthermore, there is ample evidence that the pay gap is not primarily the result of discrimination against women, but instead, the natural result of the different choices women make on average about balancing work and family.
35 of the state ERA ratifications took place in the 1970s before a long-passed deadline from Congress, while two (Nevada and Illinois) have taken place since 2016. There are serious legal issues involved in counting all of these ratifications together when they took place over such a long period. While the Supreme Court has left the exact parameters for ratification to Congress as a political question, it has also ruled that they need to be “reasonably contemporaneous” and part of a single act, in order to uphold the purpose of the amendment process in showing overwhelming popular support. Furthermore, four of the original states have rescinded their ratifications of the ERA, and one attached a sunset clause to its original ratification. Finally, Congress will need to remove the deadline it set in its passage of the ERA in the 1970s.
These open legal questions are unlikely to be resolved immediately upon a 38th state’s ratification, should one occur. Instead, look for a drawn-out court battle over the amendment process.
Read more about the ERA and its potential consequences here.
“Some of the worst misogyny I’ve experienced has come from gay men. It can feel almost more gross than it does from straight men. It’s like, you’re not even trying to express sexual interest in me, you’re just asserting your dominance over my body just because you’re a man—you’re just doing it because you can.”
Victoria Sin is a queer woman living in London and a female drag queen. When Sin recently appeared in a Broadly documentary about drag artistry, some gay men on Facebook angrily accused her of “appropriation” of gay culture and drag. “What am I appropriating? It’s pure misogyny and so stupid on many levels,” she says.
The topic of misogyny among gay men is a difficult one to broach. In my experience, men either simply refuse to believe the phenomenon exists, or the conversation is quickly derailed (“yeah, but what about homophobic women?”).
I have a male body, I’m bisexual, and I’m also genderqueer. But I’ve also experienced misogyny from both straight and gay men on the basis of my apparent femininity. At a party attended mostly by gay men who worked in political consultancy, I was asked,”What do you do, darling? Something fun like a fashion degree?” At the time, I was wearing heels, red lipstick, and a sheer crop top. “No”, I replied, curtly. “I work as a commercial lawyer in the City and I’m also a freelance writer.” His reply: “Really?”
This misogyny can range from the insidious to the explicitly vile and provocative—as Breitbart columnist Milo Yiannopoulos recently demonstrated in an essay on feminism, where he describes women as “the unfuckable feminist fag hags who have for so long ridden on our tastefully embroidered coat-tails.” Last November, actress and singer Rose McGowan discussed the misogyny she experienced from gay men in the media, saying “Gay men are as misogynistic as straight men, if not more so. I have an indictment of the gay community right now, I’m actually really upset with them.”
PHOTO BY MATTIA PELIZZARI VIA STOCKSY
In reality, conflicts around misogyny have persisted as long as the gay rights movement itself. The Gay Liberation Front, which started the first London Pride march, was the flagship movement for queer emancipation in the UK. It formed in 1970, but by 1973 had largely splintered on several political lines—one of them being gender. An editorial in Issue 2 of Gay Left, a socialist journal published by gay men in 1976, reflects on its effects on the movement:
“When the split occurred between the women and the men in the movement… the gay men became more isolated into the new ghetto. After this, much of the serious questioning of gender roles disappeared… The male gay movement, instead of challenging and confronting sexism, became increasingly defensive.”
Being a damsel in distress isn’t too attractive To Me: This Number One To Me, But is Number 15 On This list, I can’t Stand Women Who damsel in distress, It Get Old Fast!
While you may be doing everything in your power to attract the opposite sex, it may surprise you to learn that some of your actions and behaviors can actually have the opposite effect. In fact, you may not even realize that you’re acting in a way that drives men away when all you’re really trying to do is draw them toward you. In order to take control of the situation and truly attract the right guys, we’ve dug up some research on what to avoid doing and what to do instead to avoid being labeled as unattractive to men.
1. Wearing a ton of makeup could turn men off
You may think that loading up on foundation, concealer, eyeshadow, eyeliner, mascara, lipstick, and blush (to name a few) makes you look your most attractive, but it may surprise you to learn that piling on the makeup is not appealing to guys. In fact, a study in The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology revealed that women tend to overestimate the amount of makeup that men find attractive, and, as a result, many women end up applying way too much. In other words, you may choose to wear a lot of makeup because you think it draws men toward you, but, in reality, it’s actually warding them off. With this in mind, it’s time to face the fact (so to speak) that less is truly more when it comes to makeup’s role in attraction, and it’s in your best interest to opt for a natural look as opposed to caking it on for the guy you’re sweet on. Too much makeup is apparently just unattractive to many guys.
2.Extreme makeovers could make you look unattractive,
If a guy likes you for the right reasons, he’s not going to want you to suddenly undergo an extreme makeover. He knew who you were when you met, and he won’t want you to reinvent yourself in an attempt to win him over. Take Billy Joel’s advice when he says, “Don’t go changing, to try to please me… I love you just the way you are.”
As matchmaker and dating coach Joann Cohen explains, guys value confidence in a woman. Therefore, they likely will find it unattractive if you seem obsessed with your perceived imperfections. Talking about plastic surgery, cycling through different styles, and crash dieting in an attempt to lose weight can make you seem insecure, which is a real turn-off. Be yourself! Trying to drastically change your appearance could make you appear unattractive to some men.
3. Being a gossip is unattractive,
It might seem fun to share the latest rumors, scandals, and stories involving the lives of your friends, family, and coworkers with a guy, but it might surprise you to learn that being a gossip is a major turn off. While your intentions may be to try to open the lines of communication with him and keep him in the loop, it’s important to recognize that giving him the lowdown on other people’s sordid deeds actually makes you come across as having low self-esteem. In fact, many people with a poor self-image rely on gossip as a way to make themselves feel better about their own lives, and they choose to talk about the latest failures and scandalous behaviors of others as a way to give themselves a boost.
If you’re looking to attract men, you should keep in mind that guys are drawn to women who are confident, who value themselves, and who don’t put others down as a way to lift themselves up. So the next time you’re dying to dish to him about all of your friend’s dirty laundry, you should choose to clean up your act instead. Otherwise, it’s just unattractive to most guys.
4. Having no life can make guys think you’re unattractive,
Even if you’re in a happy and mutually supportive relationship, sometimes you might need a little alone time. This can be more true for some people than others, but, as a general rule, guys will want some space to breathe from time to time. Wanting time apart is not, necessarily, a reflection on how he feels about you.
We all love feeling wanted but it can be exhausting when your partner is excessively needy. A guy will likely find it unattractive if you demand that he’s by your side 24/7 and can’t find any way to occupy yourself when he’s not around.
As relationship expert Sean Horan PhD explains, “I like to think of it this way: I love eating cake, but I can’t eat it 24/7…. As humans, there’s a tug between being autonomous and bonding with others.” What’s the compromise? Plan regular outings with friends, take a fitness class, or binge-watch that show that you love (and he hates), while he does his own thing. Then, chill together and share your experiences!
5.Being excessively confident can be unattractive to some,
While having high self-esteem is a quality that men find highly attractive in women, it’s important to understand that there’s a fine line between being confident and being conceited. And while you should definitely believe in yourself, be proud of your accomplishments, and be happy about what you have to offer, you should also keep in mind that showing off is a major turn off. Specifically, research has shown that people who boast about themselves don’t even recognize the full extent of the negative response they receive from others.
Although you may assume that your self-proclaimed awesomeness is attracting men, having a huge ego and acting like a narcissist are actually huge mistakes. Alternatively, you should opt for humility and be secure enough in yourself that you don’t have to rely on arrogance to get a gent, as the right man won’t need you to constantly reinforce just how amazing you truly are — he’ll see it on his own.
6. Having no purpose or ambition seems unattractive. ,
You don’t have to have your whole life figured out, but guys don’t want to be with someone who is lacking any sort of purpose or direction. It’s unattractive to listen to someone explain how lost they are if they don’t have a plan to get on track. Plus, if it seems like you don’t know what you want to do with your life, it can make you come across as unstable.
While a man might enjoy feeling needed from time to time, he doesn’t want to feel like he’s got to rescue you if you are constantly quitting jobs and changing majors in school — or if you have no drive. This might be especially true if he’s got a clear vision for his future. It will be hard to picture you by his side if you don’t know what you’re doing with your life.
7. Bad-mouthing your ex is not a good look.
You may think that bad-mouthing your ex around a new guy is a good decision, but this kind of negative behavior actually makes you look bad instead. While your intentions may be to show a guy how much you’re over your last beau and that he has nothing to worry about when it comes to living up to the men you’ve been with previously, constantly criticizing your ex isn’t attractive. After all, not only does your need to put down your ex make you come across as spiteful and juvenile, but your unrelenting fixation on your ex makes it seem as though you’re still harboring feelings for him.
Furthermore, bad-mouthing your ex also shows any potential love interest that he could be next when it comes to being the subject of your hateful words. So rather than talking smack about your ex and venting about all the ways he wronged you, leave the past in the past so you can attract Mr. Right in the future.
8. Being a Negative Nelly is seriously unattractive:
Throughout each day, we all go through a range of emotions. And that’s perfectly normal — it’s just part of being human. Still, while we have to be authentic in how we react to situations, of course, we should also make a concerted effort to maintain a positive outlook. Not only is it healthy for our own mental sanity, but it can also have an affect on our relationship.
One study showed that men found women less physically attractive if their personalities seemed negative. That’s right — a woman’s attitude can be a real turn-off even if she, otherwise, looks good. That’s a big deal.
So, instead of worrying about clothes and makeup, make it a bigger priority to commit to being less pessimistic and more optimistic if you want to be most attractive!
10. No one like to see women being catty to other girls:
It’s important that you speak your mind and that you stand up for yourself if you are ever in a situation that makes you feel marginalized. That being said, it can be really unattractive if you seem addicted to drama and go out of your way to be mean to others.
You might think you’re showing off by engaging in a catfight, but you run the risk of looking petty and immature. There’s a big difference between acting like a juvenile girl and an emotionally secure woman in charge of a situation — and your man will definitely take notice. If you want to impress him by beating out the competition, train for a marathon, get that promotion at work, or commit to being your best self. Put your best assets on display without needing to put anyone down.
11. Men don’t always like a high-pitched voice:
For whatever reason, so many women seem to think that a shrill, high-pitched voice is somehow attractive to men. Maybe it’s how female characters are portrayed on television. Maybe they think it’s how we think Barbie would sound in real life, but, in reality, researchers have discovered that men don’t really like it.
According to the study, guys found “a female voice sounded attractive when it was breathy” and “moderately high-pitched.” You don’t have to go as deep as Scarlett Johansson’s voice, but her voice might be more attractive to most men than, say, Kim Kardashian’s voice.
Of course, don’t try to change yourself to make anyone happy. If your voice squeaks naturally, you should love it and embrace it. The right guy will love it and anything else that comes out of your mouth!
12. There’s such a thing as being too needy,
When it comes to attracting men, it’s important to recognize that men want to feel as though they’re needed. Specifically, men want to know that they add value to your life and that they’re not superfluous, expendable, or disposable. However, many women mistakenly interpret a man’s desire to feel needed by becoming overly needy, jealous, and desperate to spend every waking moment with him — all of which are anything but appealing behaviors to guys. So, if you’re someone who tends to become clingy and emotionally dependent on a man because you think it’ll bring him closer and inspire him to stick around, know that you’re actually just pushing him away.
Moreover, men want to know that they complement your life as opposed to being the center of your universe on which your entire happiness level and sense of self-worth depend. Fortunately, there are steps you can take right now to break your cycle of neediness when it comes to men, such as putting an end to negative self-talk, getting out of your comfort zone, and learning how to resolve issues on your own.
13.Taking unnecessary risks can seem unattractive:
While it’s true that some studies suggest that guys like a girl who is spontaneous, is interested in playing sports, and values a more adventurous existence, there is a limit to what sort of “wild” traits are considered attractive and desirable in a partner.
Researchers found that people who engaged in “modern risks,” such as smoking, binge-drinking, driving without a seatbelt, mountain climbing, and skateboarding, were less attractive than those who did not participate in these types of activities.
Interestingly, respondents explained that these types of risks were “rated as unattractive because they are culturally viewed as negative” (e.g. “uncool” or “stupid”). Remember that next time you choose not to buckle up!
14. People consider playing hard to get to be unattractive
While it’s true that men are drawn to women who are outgoing and assertive individuals, it’s important to recognize that there’s a fine line between being independent and being unavailable. You may think that playing hard to get and acting in a distant and disengaged way can help you attract a guy, but you’re making a mistake by not making time for him. In fact, playing games can make you seem highly immature and can give off the impression that you’re not yet ready, willing, and/or interested in getting to know him on a deeper and more meaningful level. And while you may assume that acting detached and aloof increases your allure, you’re actually coming across as uninterested, flaky, and just plain annoying. Playing hard to get is an easy way to strike out with a guy and appear unattractive.
15. Being a damsel in distress isn’t too attractive
Many childhood fairy tales would have you believe that men are attracted to overly dramatic women who are in need of rescuing, but it’s time to turn the page on this outdated way of thinking. In reality, men aren’t interested in drama, and, if you take the “woe is me” approach in the hopes of attracting a guy, you may be sad to see that seeking his attention by playing the victim will only make you appear desperate, immature, and overdramatic. Rather than trying to catch his eye by catastrophizing certain situations and hoping it’ll entice him to come and save you, you should save yourself the trouble by engaging in exercises that can help to boost your self-esteem, as well as learning effective problem-solving strategies that can help you to become more self-sufficient. If you want to attract your very own Prince Charming, acting like a drama queen is the wrong approach.
16. Don’t wear too much perfume if you want to seem attractive:
A lot of marketing goes into making women feel like they need to buy a certain perfume in order to be sexy and desirable. Now that celebrities have entered the industry, the push has become even stronger — but does dabbing from a bottle really give us a boost?
Not according to science. Researchers have determined that a woman’s natural scent can be a powerful aphrodisiac on its own, but there’s a catch — she’s most desirable when she’s ovulating. During the study, men were given t-shirts worn by women who were ovulating and those who were not. The results showed that “men who sniffed t-shirts from ovulating women had higher testosterone levels than the men who sniffed T-shirts that didn’t indicate fertility; either worn by non-ovulating women or unworn.”So, instead of masking your body’s natural come-hither scents, let nature do all the talking.
17. Having overly styled hair isn’t always a good thing:
While you may spend a lot of time (and money) trying to perfect the intricate updos and complicated styles that you see in magazines and on television, it turns out men aren’t attracted to overly done and processed hair. In fact, a survey by Pantene revealed that 78 percent of men are drawn to women with shiny, full, healthy-looking hair, as opposed to hair that’s been overly styled and manipulated. Specifically, loose curls and wavy hair are considered more appealing to men than excessively flat-ironed slick-straight hair and complex updos. But if you’re still not convinced that you should opt for a more natural and effortless look when it comes to your locks, keep in mind that the survey found that 80 percent of men believe that having unhealthy hair is a total turn-off. And what’s even more telling? Approximately 75 percent of men reported that a woman’s hair is the first thing that they notice about the woman herself. In a word, opting for low-maintenance hair will yield high results when it comes to attracting members of the opposite sex.
18. Predictable hobbies can be boring:
Do you love to cook, read books, and take long walks on the beach? That’s great and you absolutely have to make yourself happy, but if you are wondering about what guys find attractive, you might want to think a little more outside the box (while still being true to yourself, of course).
According to a study published by the Journal of Creative Behavior, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania polled 815 male undergraduates to determine which forms of creative outlet were the most sexually appealing. Things that were considered “hot” included playing sports, taking spontaneous road trips, performing in a band, and taking artistic photographs.
Essentially though, the underlying message here is that seeing people follow their passions and instincts is sexy, so trust your gut and let your heart lead the way!
19. Being a party girl can be unattractive:
You may think that being the kind of gal who’s down for whatever, goes out non-stop, and is always looking for a good time is the way to attract a man, but being an out-of-control party animal can come back to bite you. In fact, most men try to stay away from party girls because these women have a tendency to act recklessly, make poor decisions (possibly under the influence), and put themselves and others in uncomfortable and potentially harmful situations. Men are certainly interested in women who are confident, outgoing, and who like to have fun, but guys will draw the line when it comes to women who throw caution to the wind and are always looking to party hard no matter the circumstances. Rather than coming off as careless, immature, and unattractive, you should opt to party responsibly and enjoy the positive responses you’ll see from the guys around you.
20. No one wants you to starve yourself:
When going out on a first date, many women put a lot of thought into what they pick from the menu. Inside, she might be craving a big, juicy burger, but, instead of ordering what she’d like to eat, she opts for a salad during a date. Maybe she wants to look like she takes good care of herself or she is genuinely is trying to lose weight. Maybe she’s budget-conscious and doesn’t want to pick the big-ticket item.
It’s one thing if this is how you regularly eat and you are satisfied with your meal. It’s another if you start picking fries from his plate or if you refuse to eat anything at all. Firstly, it doesn’t seem like you’re being authentic. Secondly, guys don’t want you to order something you don’t even want, only to end up eating half their meal! Plus, who wants to chow down alone? This is especially true since studies show that men tend to eat a little more when women are around!